TPHD Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons as Diesel (found in soil surrounding leaking
underground storage tanks)
TPHd Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons Diesel
TPHD The Priesthood Dream
TPHD The Printing House Directory
TPHD The Protoman Homepage Done
TPHD Thermal Print Head Drum
TPHD Thermal Printing Head Drum
TPHD Throughput per Hour Data
TPHD Tons Per Hour Database
TPHD Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons Deposit
TPHD Turbo Parallel Hybrid Date
TPHD The Philosophiae Doctor (doctor of philosophy)
TPHD The Pacific Health Dialog
TPHD The Parametric High Definition
TPHD The People Helping the Disabled (Edmonds, Washington)
TPHD The Personal Hemodialysis System (Aksys, Ltd.)
TPHD The Phenomena in High Dimensions
TPHD The Pisarenko Harmonic Decomposition
TPHD The Plant Homeodomain (microbiology)
TPHD The Player Hater Degree
TPHD The Plumbing Hardware Dispatcher (Google TiSP spoof)
TPHD The Port Hueneme Division (US Naval Surface Warfare Center)
TPHD The Port Huron & Detroit Railroad
TPHD The Portable Handheld Device
TPHD The Portable Hard Drive
TPHD The Post Hole Digger (construction)
TPHD The Post Holiday Depression
TPHD The Post Homicidal Depression (serial killers)
TPHD The Pothole Dodger (driver on poorly maintained roads)
TPHD The Pre-Hearing Detention
TPHD The Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas
TPHD The Probability Hypothesis Density
TPHD The Process Hierarchy Diagram (business process modelling)
TPHD The Process Historian Database
TPHD The Professional Help Desk
TPHD The Prolyl Hydroxylase (protein)
TPHD The Punjab Haryana and Delhi (India)
TPHD The Push Here Dummy (point & shoot cameras)
Total petroleum hydrocarbon Diesel (TPHD)
Total petroleum hydrocarbon Diesel (TPHD) is a term used to denote a large
family of several hundred chemical compounds that originally come from crude
oil. Crude oil is used to make petroleum products which can contaminate the
environment. Because there are so many different chemicals in crude oil and in
other petroleum products, it is not practical to measure each one separately.
However, it is useful to measure the total amount of TPH at a site. Some
chemicals that may be found in TPH are hexane, jet fuels, mineral oils, benzene,
toluene, xylenes, naphthalene, and fluorene, as well as other petroleum products
and gasoline components. However, it is likely that samples of TPH will contain
only some, or a mixture, of these chemicals.
TPhD: The PhD
Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph.D. (American English) or PhD (British
English) for the Latin Philosophi? Doctor, meaning "teacher of philosophy", (or,
more rarely, D.Phil., for the equivalent Doctor Philosophi?) is an advanced
academic degree. In the English-speaking world it has become the most common
denomination for a research doctorate and applies to graduates in a wide array
of disciplines in the sciences and humanities. The Ph.D. has become a
requirement for a career as a university professor or researcher in many fields.
In addition, many Ph.D. graduates go on to careers in government departments,
NGOs, or in the private sector.
The detailed requirements for award of a Ph.D. vary throughout the world,
however there are common factors. A candidate must submit a thesis or
dissertation consisting of a suitable body of original academic research, which
is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-refereed context, and must
defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university.
There is usually a prescribed minimum period of study (typically two to two and
a half years full time) which must take place before submission of the thesis
(this requirement is usually waived for academic staff submitting a portfolio of
peer-reviewed published work).
Another common requirement is that the candidate must successfully complete a
certain number of advanced courses relevant to their area of specialization. In
some countries (the US and Canada, for example), most of the universities
require coursework for Ph.D. degrees. In many other countries (especially those,
such as the UK, which have a greater degree of specialisation at the
undergraduate level) there is no such condition in general. It is not uncommon,
however, for individual universities or departments to specify analogous
requirements for students not already in possession of a master's degree.
Universities in the non-English-speaking world have begun adopting similar
standards to those of the Anglophone Ph.D. for their research doctorates (see,
for example, Bologna Process).
History of the Ph.D.
European universities in the Middle Ages generally placed all academic
disciplines outside the fields of theology, medicine and law under the broad
heading of "philosophy" (or "natural philosophy" when referring to science). The
degree of Doctor of Philosophy was the most junior of the doctorates, generally
granted as honorary degrees to select and well-established scholars. In 1861,
Yale University adopted the German practice (first introduced in the 19th
century at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin) of granting the degree to
younger students who had completed a prescribed course of study and successfully
defended a thesis containing original research in science or in the humanities.
From the United States the degree spread to Canada in 1900, and then to the
United Kingdom in 1917. This displaced the existing Doctor of Philosophy degree
in some Universities; for instance, the D.Phil. (higher doctorate in the faculty
of philosophy) at the University of St Andrews was discontinued and replaced
with the Ph.D. (research doctorate). Some UK universities such as Oxford,
Buckingham and Sussex (and, until a few years ago, York) retain the D.Phil.
abbreviation for their research degrees, as do some universities in New Zealand.
Doctor of philosophy degrees across the globe
Ph.D.s are awarded under different circumstances and with different requirements
in many different English-speaking countries.
Admission to a Ph.D. program within Australia and New Zealand requires the
prospective student to have at least completed either a Bachelor's Degree with
an Honours component or a higher degree such as a post graduate Master Degree by
research or a Master Degree by course work.
In most disciplines, Honours involves an extra year of study including a large
research component in addition to coursework; however, in some disciplines such
as engineering, law and pharmacy, Honours is automatically awarded to high
achievers of the normal four-year program. To obtain a Ph.D. position, students
must usually gain a First Class Honours, but may sometimes be admitted with a
high Second Class Honours (known as a 2A, or Second Class Honours Division I).
Alternatively, a student who fails to achieve a First or Second Class Honours
may apply for a Research Masters course (usually 12-18 months) and upgrade to a
PhD after the first year, pending sufficient improvement.
In Australia, Ph.D. students are sometimes offered a scholarship to study their
Ph.D. The most common of these is the Australian Postgraduate Award (APA)
scholarship, which provides a living stipend to students of approximately AU$
20,000 a year (tax free). Most universities also offer a similar scholarship
that matches the APA amount, but are funded by the university. In recent years,
with the tightening of research funding in Australia, these scholarships have
become increasingly hard to obtain. In addition to the more common APA and
University scholarships, Australian students also have other sources of funding
in their Ph.D. These could include, but are not limited to, scholarships offered
by schools, research centres and commercial enterprise. For the latter, the
amount is determined between the university and the organisation, but is quite
often set at the APA (Industry) rate, roughly AU$7,000 more than the usual APA
rate. Australian students are often also able to tutor undergraduate classes and
do guest lectures (much like a teaching assistant in the USA) to generate
income. An Australian Ph.D. scholarship is paid for a duration of 3 years, while
a 6 month extension is usually possible upon citing delays out of the control of
the student. Completion of a Ph.D. is results dependent, and often students are
unable to finish during the tenure of the scholarship.
PhD and Research Masters students in Australia are not charged course fees as
these are paid for by the Australian Government under the Research Training
Scheme. International students and Coursework Masters students must pay course
fees, unless they receive a scholarship to cover them.
Admission to a Ph.D. program at a Canadian university may require completion of
a Master's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades and proven
research ability. In many cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours
Bachelor's degree to a Ph.D. program. The student usually submits an application
package including a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and in
some cases, a sample of the student's writing. A common criterion for
prospective Ph.D students is the comprehensive or qualifying examination, a
process that often commences in the second year of a graduate program.
Generally, successful completion of the qualifying exam permits continuance in
the graduate program. Formats for this examination include oral examination by
the student's faculty committee (or a separate qualifying committee), or written
tests designed to demonstrate the student's knowledge in a specialized area (see
At English-speaking universities, students may also be required to demonstrate
English language ability, usually via an acceptable score on a standard
examination (e.g Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)). Depending on
the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or
more additional language(s). Prospective students applying to French-speaking
universities may also have to demonstrate at least some English language
While some students work outside the university (or at student jobs within the
university), in some programs students are advised (or must agree) not to devote
more than twelve hours per week to activities outside of their studies.
At some Canadian universities, most Ph.D. students receive an award equivalent
to the tuition amount for the first four years (this is sometimes called a
tuition deferral or tuition waiver). Other sources of funding include teaching
assistantships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant
is encouraged but not requisite in many programs. Some programs may require all
Ph.D. candidates to teach, which may be done under the supervision of their
supervisor or regular faculty.
Besides these sources of funding, there are also various competitive
scholarships, bursaries, and awards available, such as those offered by the
federal government via NSERC, CIHR, or SSHRC.
Requirements for completion
In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of coursework
and the comprehensive examinations. At this stage, the student is known as a
"Ph.D. student." It is usually expected that the student will have completed
most of his or her required coursework by the end of this stage. Furthermore, it
is usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months after the
first registration, the student will have successfully completed the
Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student becomes known
as a "Ph.D. candidate." From this stage on, the bulk of the student's time will
be devoted to his or her own research, culminating in the completion of a Ph.D.
"thesis," or "dissertation." The final requirement is an oral thesis defence
open to the public.
At most Canadian universities, the time needed to complete a Ph.D. typically
ranges from four to six years. It is, however, not uncommon for students to be
unable to complete all the requirements within six years, particularly given
that funding packages often support students for only two to four years; many
departments will allow program extensions at the discretion of the thesis
supervisor and/or department chair. Alternate arrangements exist whereby a
student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at the end of
six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in draft form. The
general rule is that graduate students are obligated to pay tuition until the
initial thesis submission has been received by the thesis office. In other
words, if a Ph.D. student defers or delays the initial submission of their
thesis they remain obligated to pay fees until such time that the thesis has
been received in good standing.
See also: Education in Germany
In Germany a Master, Diploma, Magister or Staatsexamen (state examination)
degree is usually required to gain admission to a doctoral program. Sometimes
good grades or a degree in a related field are additional requirements. The
candidate must also find a tenured professor to serve as the formal advisor on
the Dissertation throughout the doctoral program. This advisor is informally
termed Doktorvater ('father of the doctor', for a male professor) or
Doktormutter ('mother of the doctor', for a female professor).
In early university history the Doctorate was awarded as a first degree. It has
since evolved into a research degree.
In German-speaking countries, most Eastern European countries, the former Soviet
Union, most parts of Africa, Asia, and many Spanish-speaking countries the
corresponding degree is simply called "Doctor" and is distinguished by subject
area with a Latin suffix (e.g. "Dr.med." — doctor medicin? — which is not equal
to an M.D., "Dr.rer.nat" — doctor rerum naturalium (Doctor of Science), "Dr.
phil." — doctor philosophi? etc.).
This short section requires expansion.
An Oxford University DPhil in full academic dress.
In principle, a university is free to admit anyone to a Ph.D. programme;
however, in practice, admission is usually conditional on the prospective
student having successfully completed an undergraduate degree with at least
upper second class honours, or a postgraduate master's degree.
In the UK, funding for Ph.D. students is often provided by government-funded
Research Councils or the ESF. The funding usually takes the form of a tax-free
bursary which consists of tuition fees together with a stipend of around GBP
12,600 per year for three years (rising to ￡14,300 per year in London), whether
or not the degree continues for longer. Research Council funding is typically
allocated to an academic department which then allocate it to students, although
restrictions as to the minimum acceptable qualifications are normally specified.
These minimum requirements are typically a first degree with upper second class
honours, although successful completion of a postgraduate master's degree is
usually counted as raising the class of the first degree by one division for
these purposes. However, the availability of funding in many disciplines
(especially humanities, social studies, and pure science subjects) means that in
practice only those with the best research proposals, references and backgrounds
are likely to be awarded a studentship. The ESRC (Economic and Social Science
Research Council) explicitly state that a 2.1 minimum (or 2.2 plus additional
masters degree) is required - no additional marks are given for students with a
first class honours or a distinction at masters level.
Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to undertake
the degree part time, thus reducing the tuition fees, as well as creating free
time in which to earn money for subsistence.
Students may also take part in tutoring, work as research assistants, or
(occasionally) deliver lectures, at a rate of typically ￡15-20 per hour , either
to supplement existing income or as a sole means of funding.
Funding usually lasts for three years full-time (this period is usually extended
pro rata for part-time students) and the thesis must usually be submitted within
seven years. Since the early 1990s, the UK funding councils have adopted a
policy of penalising the departments of students who fail to submit their theses
in four years (or equivalent) by reducing the number of funded places in
In the United Kingdom Ph.D.s are distinct from other doctorates, most notably
the higher doctorates such as D.Litt. (Doctor of Letters) or D.Sc. (Doctor of
Science), which are granted on the recommendation of a committee of examiners on
the basis of a substantial portfolio of submitted (and usually published)
Recent years have seen the introduction of vocational doctorates, most notably
in the fields of engineering (Eng. D.), education (Ed. D.), clinical psychology
(D. Clin. Psychol.) and business administration (D.B.A.). These typically have a
more formal taught component, as well as a research component roughly equivalent
to that of a Ph.D. This research component typically takes the form of a
portfolio of two or three smaller research studies, rather than a single
dissertation focusing on one larger academic project. D.Phil is the title given
to doctorates achieved from the University of Oxford.
In the United States, the Ph.D. is the highest academic degree awarded by
universities in many fields of study. US students undergo a series of three
phases in the course of their doctoral work: the first phase consists of
coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three years to
complete. This often is followed by a preliminary or comprehensive examination
and/or a series of cumulative examinations where the emphasis is on breadth
rather than depth of knowledge.
Another two to four years is usually required for the composition of a
substantial and original contribution to human knowledge embodied in a written
dissertation that in the social sciences and humanities is typically 100 to 450
pages in length. Dissertations generally consist of (i) a comprehensive
literature review, (ii) an outline of methodology, and (iii) several chapters of
scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis. Typically,
upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public,
by his or her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.
In most research fields, a doctoral degree is required for employment. In some
fields, notably the physical sciences, newly-graduated Ph.D.s are unlikely to
obtain a tenure-track post and so undertake one or more postdoctoral positions.
However, in recent years, in light of large-scale faculty retirement in North
American universities and colleges, the government believes academic employment
prospects for freshly minted Ph.D. graduates may be improving. Other studies
have found that there is an oversupply of Ph.D. graduates in some science and
engineering fields and that graduates have a difficult time finding satisfactory
positions in industry and academia. This is supported by studies that have shown
that both the length and number of temporary postdoctoral positions have been
increasing . This is also supported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics which
finds that many of the academic jobs becoming available for Ph.D.s are part
The Ph.D. is often misunderstood to be synonymous with the term "doctorate".
While the Ph.D. is the most common doctorate, the term "doctorate" can refer to
any number of doctoral degrees in the United States. The U.S. Department of
Education and the National Science Foundation recognize numerous doctoral
degrees as "equivalent", and do not discriminate between them (e.g., Doctor of
Arts (D.A.), Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.), Doctor of Education (Ed. D.),
Doctor of Science (D.Sc.), Doctor of Theology (Th. D.), Doctor of Business
See Doctoral Degree in the United States
Admission to a Ph.D. program in the United States typically requires applicants
to have a Bachelor's degree in a relevant field, reasonably high grades, several
letters of recommendation, relevant academic coursework, a cogent statement of
interest in the field of study, and a satisfactory performance on the Graduate
Record Exam (GRE). The general GRE is usually required; an appropriate GRE
subject test may also be required. Specific admissions criteria differ
substantially according to university admissions policies and fields of study;
some programs in well-regarded research universities may admit less than 5% of
applicants and require an exceptional performance on the GRE along with
near-perfect grades, strong support in letters of recommendation, substantial
research experience, and academically sophisticated samples of their writing.
Several universities use scoring algorithms in their admissions decision. One
common score is calculated by summing an applicant's GRE-Verbal and
GRE-Quantitative scores, dividing by 200, then adding the cumulative GPA ((GREv+GREq)/200)+GPA;
scores of 10 and higher are generally considered competitive. An alternate
calculation is: ((GPA*200)+GREq+GREv).
Master's degree "in passing"
As applicants to many Ph.D. programs are not required to have Master's Degrees,
many programs award a M.A. or M.S. degree "in passing" or "in course." These
degrees are awarded based on graduate work, but are not "terminal" degrees
because the recipient is expected to continue his or her education toward the
Ph.D. Students who receive such Master's Degrees are usually required to
complete a certain amount of coursework and a master's thesis. Depending on the
specific program, masters-in-passing degrees can be either mandatory or
optional. Not all Ph.D. students choose to complete the additional requirements
necessary for the M.A. or M.S. if such requirements are not mandated by their
programs. Those students will simply obtain the Ph.D. at the end of their
Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a Ph.D. program usually
takes between four and eight years of enrollment after the Bachelor's Degree;
those students who begin a Ph.D. program with a Master's Degree may complete
their Ph.D. a year or two sooner. As Ph.D. programs typically lack the formal
structure of undergraduate education, there are significant individual
differences in the time taken to complete the degree. Many US universities have
set a 10-year limit for students in Ph.D. programs, or refuse to consider
graduate credit older than ten years as counting towards a Ph.D. Similarly,
students may be required to re-take the comprehensive exam if they do not defend
their dissertations within five years of taking it. Overall, 57% of US Ph.D.
students will complete their degree within 10 years, approximately 30% will drop
out or be dismissed, and the remaining 13% of students will continue on past 10
Doctoral students are usually discouraged from engaging in external employment
during the course of their graduate training. As a result, Ph.D. students at
U.S. universities typically receive a tuition waiver and some form of annual
stipend. The source and amount of funding varies from field to field and
university to university. Many U.S. graduate students work as teaching
assistants or research assistants while they are doctoral students. Graduate
schools increasingly encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are
supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisors'
research grants from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation
and the National Institutes of Health. Many Ivy League and other well-endowed
universities provide funding for the entire duration of the degree program (if
it is short) or for most of it.
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